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Fruška gora - Šuma

Fruška Gora

Fruška Gora, a former island in the Pannonian sea, belongs to the island and old boulder type mountains. Spreading from west to east, about 80km long and 15km wide, with the highest top of 539m - Crveni Čot - Friška Gora represents the dominant orthographic whole of the Pannonian plains. Alluvial planes of Sava and Danube border the Fruška Gora mountain range  from the east and north; the south and west is edged by loess plateaus in Srem.

Romans also called it Alma Mons which means "fruitful mountain", and today's name comes from the old Slovenian ethnonym Frug, a synonym for Francs, which kind of interprets the name into "Francs Mountain." Because of its violent geological past, the abundance of fossils in its sediments, and countless rare examples of plant and animal life, as well as the priceless cultural-historical legacy, Fruška Gora was proclaimed a national nature park in 1960.

Geology

Fruska Gora - geology, sedimentation

Fruska Gora is a mountain of small spaces and heights, with the characteristics of hill, not mountain, terrain. Besides this, this mountain is characterized by the presence of different types of rocks in terms of when and how they were formed, as well as the chemical and mineralogical composition. The core of the mountain is composed of Palaeozoic metamorphic, igneous rocks, which are the oldest, and the most widespread are calcareous phyllites and spikes. Mesozoic sediments are present to a lesser extent, in the form of a narrow zone of shallow thickness, and belong to the Triassic red and gray sandstones and schists, conglomerates, breccias, and other rocks. The most common are sedimentary rocks from the Cenozoic. Peripheral parts of Fruška Gora are built by tertiary formations, represented layers with coal, limestone, shale and sandstone, while quartic creations in the form of thick layers of loess, cover the lowest parts.

A treasury of geological history, with very valuable sites of well-preserved fossils of flora and fauna in the sediments of Fruška Gora, gives the right for this small mountain to be called " a mirror of geological past." Sites like the Čerević stream, an incision at the monastery Grgeteg, the area around Beoćin and Ledinci represent unique cases in the Old World.

Hydrology

Fruska Gora - hydrology

Thanks to an average of large amounts of rainfall during the year, geological composition and many permanent springs, the hydrographic network of Fruška Gora is very dense and relatively arranged. The Hydrographic network consists of surface water springs, dense drainage networks, ponds and artificial reservoirs. The central part of the Fruška Gora range looks like a real mountain with a length of about 40 km, and an average height of 440-460m and is richest with water. The western part of the range, which is the form of a leveled knap with high elevations of about 200 m, and the eastern part, whose last high places are at a pure loess area, represent areas that are much less rich in hydrographic terms. The northern slopes, which gravitate toward the Danube, and represent a wide network of smaller rivers that are up to 10 km long, are rich in deep valleys in the upper and middle flows, while in the lower courses they widen, building a narrow, flat valley.

The southern slopes of Fruška Gora are characterized by short streams, of which only springs belong to the mountain area, are made from distinctive deep valleys without flat parts, and in the lower courses of they lose their character because the altitude is reduced by the Srem loess plateau. In the past, the streams in the lower region of Srem often overflowed into arable land, roads and settlements, and exerted a strong soil erosion due to heavy rainfall, and in the summer most of them would dry up. So as to reduce flooding in the spring and irrigation during the summer months, the streams were built over and thus artificial reservoirs were made on Fruška Gora.

Climate

Fruska Gora - Air

Fruska Gora is located on the border of temperate continental and sub-continental climate. Various factors such as position, shape, rainfall, dominant winds and vegetation affect the creation of the specific local climate of Fruška Gora. Although it is one of the shorter mountains, the higher you go the more the climate becomes wetter and colder, so that at higher altitudes it acquires the features of a mountain climate with colder winters and fresher summers. The mean value of annual air temperatures is 11.2 ° C, the lowest average temperature in January is -0.6 ° C, and the highest in July 21.4 ° C, while the level of relative humidity is 76%.

The forest is an area with the highest rainfall in the whole province and the annual sum of precipitation proportionally increases with altitude, and the difference between the higher parts in relation to the base is 200 mm. Average annual rainfall in the entire territory of Fruška Gora is 670 mm. In this area, the prevailing ones are the westerly winds, then winds from the west-southwest, while the relatively frequent winds are from the southeast, which usually occur in the fall, winter and spring, and less often in the summer.

Flora

Fruska Gora - flora

Thanks to its geographical location, climatic conditions and rich and ramified hydrographic network, Fruška Gora is a treasure trove of flora that can be compared with the much larger and higher mountains in Serbia. Some time ago Fruška Gora was a forest area in its entirety and the forest stretched to 130000 ha. Eventually, people cut down a large part of the forests here, so that today the forest area covers 23,000 ha, and the remaining forests are generally found at higher and tilted places and in large part they enter the boundaries of the national park. On reclaimed landscapes today are meadows, swards, fields, vineyards and orchards.

Fauna

In harmony with the rich flora of Fruška Gora an interesting animal kingdom resides, whose population is made up of a large number of very rare specimens, protected as natural heritages of Serbia. The forests of Fruška Gora and meadows are a natural habitat for a large number of insects, 280 species of vertebrates, 23 species of amphibians and reptiles, 211 species of birds and 60 species of mammals that live here in accordance with the laws of nature.

Tourism

Fruska Gora - Tourism

Geography, nature and the history of Fruška Gora offer various content for different types of tourism. If you want to spend a pleasant family picnic in a lovely and natural environment, you have a number of resorts to choose from. The lakes here are already familiar and popular places for sports and recreational fishing, and clean water and beautiful coastlines are a good choice for swimming on hot summer days. The untouched nature of the national park has a number of interesting destinations for lovers of eco-tourism. Clean air and a healthy environment of the place is a great prerequisite for a village holiday. The famous wine route of Fruška Gora is a must-not-miss-it route for those who want to enjoy high-quality wines, made according to old family recipes from wine growers in the area, while the gorgeous Danube meets the appetites of river tourism fans.

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